Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Endocrinology & Metabolism

Introduction

Endocrinology is an emerging specialty of medicine. It deals with various hormone disorders. These disorders are the commonest among non - communicable diseases, yet the awareness about them is low in general population. To create public awareness and provide comprehensive treatment about various endocrine and metabolic diseases, a new state-of-the-art department of endocrinology and metabolism has been established in this hospital which was inaugurated on 2nd March, 2000 by Dr. S.K. Sama, Chairman, Board of Management, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital.

  • Diabetes and Obesity Clinic
  • Thyroid Clinic
  • Bone Health clinic (Osteoporosis)
  • Growth clinic
  • Andrology Clinic (Impotence, Infertility and Hirsutism)
  • Endocrinology Clinic

Facilities available:

  • Round the clock endocrine services
  • General OPD on Tue &Friday 10:30 - 11:30 AM
  • Daily Private OPD 12 - 4 pm

The department is soon going to launch Diabetes Prevention Programme .

Endocrinology:

Diabetes:

The numbers of diabetics in the world is very rapidly increasing esp. in India, where there are about 40 million diabetics. The number of diabetics in metro-cities (e.g Delhi) has been reported to be as high as 16%, thus reaching epidemic proportions. Diabetes mellitus is the commonest metabolic disorder in the world . The prevalence of diabetes in highest among Asians especially Indians. Due to rapid urbanization, cultural changes and changing socio-economic status the incidence of diabetes in metro cities is now reported to be as high as 16% reaching epidemic proportions.

Diabetes is the commonest cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks and gangrene of limbs. This department is especially equipped to provide state-of-the-art management for diabetes . The department is equipped with an independent diabetes laboratory with latest equipment including mini vascular lab , for on the spot assessment of all complications of diabetes . The available spot investigative facilities are :

  • HbA1c
  • Urinary micro-albuminuria
  • Total cholesterol and trglycerides
  • Body composition analysis
  • Assessment of autonomic neuropathy
  • Peripheral vascular studies

Facilities for ambulatory insulin infusion shall be available very soon.

The basic aim of diabetes management is to improve quality of life and prevent/delay complications as for as possible. The department is striving hard in this direction. The department interacts very closely with the other departments like - Gynae. & Obst. , Orthopaedics, Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Nephrology etc. in order to provide comprehensive endocrine management.

EYE

Diabetes is the commonest cause of blindness in working age group.

Diabetic retinopathy(Leading to blindness)

KIDNEY

it is also the commonest cause of Kidney failure.

HEART

Heart Attacks are three times and Paralysis/Strokes are 3 to 5 times more common among diabetics.

Complication of Heart (Leading to heart attack)

LEGS & FEET

The incidence of Amputations exp. of legs and feet is 17 times more common in diabetics.

SEXUAL DISORDERS

Sexual problems are much more common in male diabetics.

Sexual problems

Brain & Nerves

Paralysis / stroke

Pain / Burning sensation over palms, soles & legs

DIABETES

Diabetes is a symptom free disease at onset. It usually takes 5-10 years before it is diagnosed. It is preceded by a prediabetic stage which is called Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) which also last for 5-10 years before progressing to frank diabetes. It is during this pre-diabetic stage (IGT) that long term complications of diabetes start appearing. Hence, it is important to identify the high risk group at earliest and start treatment to prevent/dealy diabetes and its complications.

SELF ASSESSMENT FOR DIABETES
01. Is there any family history of diabetes ? Yes
02. Are you over weight ? Yes
03. Are you over 40 years of age ? Yes
04. Is your job sedentary ? Yes
05. Is your waist hip ratio more than one ? Yes
06. Did you have diabetes during pregnancy ? Yes
07. Do you suffer form high Blood Pressure ? Yes
08. Do you have high cholesterol levels ? Yes
09. Were you under/ over weight at birth ? Yes
10. Does your blood sugar go up during stress ? Yes

Thyroid

Thyroid diseases are common especially in women. These are :

Hypothyroidism

  • Swelling of body
  • Weight Gain
  • Lethargy
  • Weakness
  • Cold Intolerance
  • Excessive Hair Fall
  • Poor Memory
  • Low Sexual Desire
  • Joint /Body Pains
  • Menstrual Irregularity
  • Dry Skin
  • Chronic constipation
  • Depression

If you are having any two of the above you may be suffering from Hypothyroidism

Thyrotoxicosis

  • Weight Loss
  • Marked Weakness
  • Heat Intolerance
  • Prominent Eyes
  • Excessive Sweating
  • Nervousness
  • Tremors of Hands/Body
  • Palpitation

Goitre

Enlargement of Thyroid Gland is called Goitre. It may be due to Cancer, or other diseases of Thyroid.

Obesity

Obesity is the mother of all diseases. It is a preventable and treatable condition. The Complications of obesity are as follows :

  • Depression
  • Disturbed/Excessive sleep
  • Stroke
  • Breathlessness
  • High Cholesterol/Blood Pressure
  • Heart Attack
  • Diabetes
  • Gall Stone
  • Cancer
  • Impotence/Infertility
  • Arthritis
  • More prone to Accidents

Male sexual problems

Common male sexual problems are:

  • Impotence
  • Infertility
  • Male Breast Enlargement
  • Micro-penis in Children
Female sexual problems
  • Abnormal Hair-Growth on face and other parts of the body.
  • Infertility
  • Menstrual Problems
  • Menopause Problems
  • Abnormal Milk Discharge from Breast

Osteoporosis

It is a disease where there is thinning/ weakening of the bones and it leads to fracture with minimum trauma. Even forceful cough can produce fracture in severe osteoporosis. It is the fracture of the hip and vertebrae which immobilizes the patient and is most dreaded. Osteoporosis is a preventable and treatable condition. Majority of the patients remain unrecognized and undiagnosed till fracture develops. It is more common in females esp. after the age of 40-45 yrs.

Normal & Osteoporotic Bone

SELF ASSESSMENT FOR DIABETES
01. Is there any family history of frequent fractures ? Yes
02. Are you a post menopausal woman ? Yes
03. Are you taking eltroxin/ steroids? Yes
04. Is your physical activity less than normal ? Yes
05. Is your diet low in milk products ? Yes
06. Are you suffering from Arthritis/Asthma ? Yes
07. Do you smoke or consume Alcohol in excess ? Yes
08. Are you under weight ? Yes

Other Hormone Diseases

Height & Growth Problem

Height of a child is controlled by Growth hormone (GH). Deficiency of this hormone can lead to short stature and if diagnosed and treated in time normal height of the child can be restored.

Disorders of Puberty

Pubertal period is a phase during which child develops secondary sexual characters and transforms to become an adult. Pubertal development problems can lead to either delayed or early onset of puberty.